tools: mxsboot: Calculate ECC strength dynamically
[karo-tx-uboot.git] / tools / mxsboot.c
1 /*
2  * Freescale i.MX28 image generator
3  *
4  * Copyright (C) 2011 Marek Vasut <marek.vasut@gmail.com>
5  * on behalf of DENX Software Engineering GmbH
6  *
7  * SPDX-License-Identifier:     GPL-2.0+
8  */
9
10 #include <fcntl.h>
11 #include <sys/stat.h>
12 #include <sys/types.h>
13 #include <unistd.h>
14
15 #include "compiler.h"
16
17 /* Taken from <linux/kernel.h> */
18 #define __round_mask(x, y) ((__typeof__(x))((y)-1))
19 #define round_down(x, y) ((x) & ~__round_mask(x, y))
20
21 /*
22  * Default BCB layout.
23  *
24  * TWEAK this if you have blown any OCOTP fuses.
25  */
26 #define STRIDE_PAGES            64
27 #define STRIDE_COUNT            4
28
29 /*
30  * Layout for 256Mb big NAND with 2048b page size, 64b OOB size and
31  * 128kb erase size.
32  *
33  * TWEAK this if you have different kind of NAND chip.
34  */
35 static uint32_t nand_writesize = 2048;
36 static uint32_t nand_oobsize = 64;
37 static uint32_t nand_erasesize = 128 * 1024;
38
39 /*
40  * Sector on which the SigmaTel boot partition (0x53) starts.
41  */
42 static uint32_t sd_sector = 2048;
43
44 /*
45  * Each of the U-Boot bootstreams is at maximum 1MB big.
46  *
47  * TWEAK this if, for some wild reason, you need to boot bigger image.
48  */
49 #define MAX_BOOTSTREAM_SIZE     (1 * 1024 * 1024)
50
51 /* i.MX28 NAND controller-specific constants. DO NOT TWEAK! */
52 #define MXS_NAND_DMA_DESCRIPTOR_COUNT           4
53 #define MXS_NAND_CHUNK_DATA_CHUNK_SIZE          512
54 #define MXS_NAND_METADATA_SIZE                  10
55 #define MXS_NAND_BITS_PER_ECC_LEVEL             13
56 #define MXS_NAND_COMMAND_BUFFER_SIZE            32
57
58 struct mx28_nand_fcb {
59         uint32_t                checksum;
60         uint32_t                fingerprint;
61         uint32_t                version;
62         struct {
63                 uint8_t                 data_setup;
64                 uint8_t                 data_hold;
65                 uint8_t                 address_setup;
66                 uint8_t                 dsample_time;
67                 uint8_t                 nand_timing_state;
68                 uint8_t                 rea;
69                 uint8_t                 rloh;
70                 uint8_t                 rhoh;
71         }                       timing;
72         uint32_t                page_data_size;
73         uint32_t                total_page_size;
74         uint32_t                sectors_per_block;
75         uint32_t                number_of_nands;                /* Ignored */
76         uint32_t                total_internal_die;             /* Ignored */
77         uint32_t                cell_type;                      /* Ignored */
78         uint32_t                ecc_block_n_ecc_type;
79         uint32_t                ecc_block_0_size;
80         uint32_t                ecc_block_n_size;
81         uint32_t                ecc_block_0_ecc_type;
82         uint32_t                metadata_bytes;
83         uint32_t                num_ecc_blocks_per_page;
84         uint32_t                ecc_block_n_ecc_level_sdk;      /* Ignored */
85         uint32_t                ecc_block_0_size_sdk;           /* Ignored */
86         uint32_t                ecc_block_n_size_sdk;           /* Ignored */
87         uint32_t                ecc_block_0_ecc_level_sdk;      /* Ignored */
88         uint32_t                num_ecc_blocks_per_page_sdk;    /* Ignored */
89         uint32_t                metadata_bytes_sdk;             /* Ignored */
90         uint32_t                erase_threshold;
91         uint32_t                boot_patch;
92         uint32_t                patch_sectors;
93         uint32_t                firmware1_starting_sector;
94         uint32_t                firmware2_starting_sector;
95         uint32_t                sectors_in_firmware1;
96         uint32_t                sectors_in_firmware2;
97         uint32_t                dbbt_search_area_start_address;
98         uint32_t                badblock_marker_byte;
99         uint32_t                badblock_marker_start_bit;
100         uint32_t                bb_marker_physical_offset;
101 };
102
103 struct mx28_nand_dbbt {
104         uint32_t                checksum;
105         uint32_t                fingerprint;
106         uint32_t                version;
107         uint32_t                number_bb;
108         uint32_t                number_2k_pages_bb;
109 };
110
111 struct mx28_nand_bbt {
112         uint32_t                nand;
113         uint32_t                number_bb;
114         uint32_t                badblock[510];
115 };
116
117 struct mx28_sd_drive_info {
118         uint32_t                chip_num;
119         uint32_t                drive_type;
120         uint32_t                tag;
121         uint32_t                first_sector_number;
122         uint32_t                sector_count;
123 };
124
125 struct mx28_sd_config_block {
126         uint32_t                        signature;
127         uint32_t                        primary_boot_tag;
128         uint32_t                        secondary_boot_tag;
129         uint32_t                        num_copies;
130         struct mx28_sd_drive_info       drv_info[1];
131 };
132
133 static inline uint32_t mx28_nand_ecc_chunk_cnt(uint32_t page_data_size)
134 {
135         return page_data_size / MXS_NAND_CHUNK_DATA_CHUNK_SIZE;
136 }
137
138 static inline uint32_t mx28_nand_ecc_size_in_bits(uint32_t ecc_strength)
139 {
140         return ecc_strength * MXS_NAND_BITS_PER_ECC_LEVEL;
141 }
142
143 static inline uint32_t mx28_nand_get_ecc_strength(uint32_t page_data_size,
144                                                 uint32_t page_oob_size)
145 {
146         int ecc_strength;
147
148         /*
149          * Determine the ECC layout with the formula:
150          *      ECC bits per chunk = (total page spare data bits) /
151          *              (bits per ECC level) / (chunks per page)
152          * where:
153          *      total page spare data bits =
154          *              (page oob size - meta data size) * (bits per byte)
155          */
156         ecc_strength = ((page_oob_size - MXS_NAND_METADATA_SIZE) * 8)
157                         / (MXS_NAND_BITS_PER_ECC_LEVEL *
158                                 mx28_nand_ecc_chunk_cnt(page_data_size));
159
160         return round_down(ecc_strength, 2);
161 }
162
163 static inline uint32_t mx28_nand_get_mark_offset(uint32_t page_data_size,
164                                                 uint32_t ecc_strength)
165 {
166         uint32_t chunk_data_size_in_bits;
167         uint32_t chunk_ecc_size_in_bits;
168         uint32_t chunk_total_size_in_bits;
169         uint32_t block_mark_chunk_number;
170         uint32_t block_mark_chunk_bit_offset;
171         uint32_t block_mark_bit_offset;
172
173         chunk_data_size_in_bits = MXS_NAND_CHUNK_DATA_CHUNK_SIZE * 8;
174         chunk_ecc_size_in_bits  = mx28_nand_ecc_size_in_bits(ecc_strength);
175
176         chunk_total_size_in_bits =
177                         chunk_data_size_in_bits + chunk_ecc_size_in_bits;
178
179         /* Compute the bit offset of the block mark within the physical page. */
180         block_mark_bit_offset = page_data_size * 8;
181
182         /* Subtract the metadata bits. */
183         block_mark_bit_offset -= MXS_NAND_METADATA_SIZE * 8;
184
185         /*
186          * Compute the chunk number (starting at zero) in which the block mark
187          * appears.
188          */
189         block_mark_chunk_number =
190                         block_mark_bit_offset / chunk_total_size_in_bits;
191
192         /*
193          * Compute the bit offset of the block mark within its chunk, and
194          * validate it.
195          */
196         block_mark_chunk_bit_offset = block_mark_bit_offset -
197                         (block_mark_chunk_number * chunk_total_size_in_bits);
198
199         if (block_mark_chunk_bit_offset > chunk_data_size_in_bits)
200                 return 1;
201
202         /*
203          * Now that we know the chunk number in which the block mark appears,
204          * we can subtract all the ECC bits that appear before it.
205          */
206         block_mark_bit_offset -=
207                 block_mark_chunk_number * chunk_ecc_size_in_bits;
208
209         return block_mark_bit_offset;
210 }
211
212 static inline uint32_t mx28_nand_mark_byte_offset(void)
213 {
214         uint32_t ecc_strength;
215         ecc_strength = mx28_nand_get_ecc_strength(nand_writesize, nand_oobsize);
216         return mx28_nand_get_mark_offset(nand_writesize, ecc_strength) >> 3;
217 }
218
219 static inline uint32_t mx28_nand_mark_bit_offset(void)
220 {
221         uint32_t ecc_strength;
222         ecc_strength = mx28_nand_get_ecc_strength(nand_writesize, nand_oobsize);
223         return mx28_nand_get_mark_offset(nand_writesize, ecc_strength) & 0x7;
224 }
225
226 static uint32_t mx28_nand_block_csum(uint8_t *block, uint32_t size)
227 {
228         uint32_t csum = 0;
229         int i;
230
231         for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
232                 csum += block[i];
233
234         return csum ^ 0xffffffff;
235 }
236
237 static struct mx28_nand_fcb *mx28_nand_get_fcb(uint32_t size)
238 {
239         struct mx28_nand_fcb *fcb;
240         uint32_t bcb_size_bytes;
241         uint32_t stride_size_bytes;
242         uint32_t bootstream_size_pages;
243         uint32_t fw1_start_page;
244         uint32_t fw2_start_page;
245
246         fcb = malloc(nand_writesize);
247         if (!fcb) {
248                 printf("MX28 NAND: Unable to allocate FCB\n");
249                 return NULL;
250         }
251
252         memset(fcb, 0, nand_writesize);
253
254         fcb->fingerprint =                      0x20424346;
255         fcb->version =                          0x01000000;
256
257         /*
258          * FIXME: These here are default values as found in kobs-ng. We should
259          * probably retrieve the data from NAND or something.
260          */
261         fcb->timing.data_setup =                80;
262         fcb->timing.data_hold =                 60;
263         fcb->timing.address_setup =             25;
264         fcb->timing.dsample_time =              6;
265
266         fcb->page_data_size =           nand_writesize;
267         fcb->total_page_size =          nand_writesize + nand_oobsize;
268         fcb->sectors_per_block =        nand_erasesize / nand_writesize;
269
270         fcb->num_ecc_blocks_per_page =  (nand_writesize / 512) - 1;
271         fcb->ecc_block_0_size =         512;
272         fcb->ecc_block_n_size =         512;
273         fcb->metadata_bytes =           10;
274
275         if (nand_writesize == 2048) {
276                 fcb->ecc_block_n_ecc_type =             4;
277                 fcb->ecc_block_0_ecc_type =             4;
278         } else if (nand_writesize == 4096) {
279                 if (nand_oobsize == 128) {
280                         fcb->ecc_block_n_ecc_type =     4;
281                         fcb->ecc_block_0_ecc_type =     4;
282                 } else if (nand_oobsize == 218) {
283                         fcb->ecc_block_n_ecc_type =     8;
284                         fcb->ecc_block_0_ecc_type =     8;
285                 } else if (nand_oobsize == 224) {
286                         fcb->ecc_block_n_ecc_type =     8;
287                         fcb->ecc_block_0_ecc_type =     8;
288                 }
289         }
290
291         if (fcb->ecc_block_n_ecc_type == 0) {
292                 printf("MX28 NAND: Unsupported NAND geometry\n");
293                 goto err;
294         }
295
296         fcb->boot_patch =                       0;
297         fcb->patch_sectors =                    0;
298
299         fcb->badblock_marker_byte =     mx28_nand_mark_byte_offset();
300         fcb->badblock_marker_start_bit = mx28_nand_mark_bit_offset();
301         fcb->bb_marker_physical_offset = nand_writesize;
302
303         stride_size_bytes = STRIDE_PAGES * nand_writesize;
304         bcb_size_bytes = stride_size_bytes * STRIDE_COUNT;
305
306         bootstream_size_pages = (size + (nand_writesize - 1)) /
307                                         nand_writesize;
308
309         fw1_start_page = 2 * bcb_size_bytes / nand_writesize;
310         fw2_start_page = (2 * bcb_size_bytes + MAX_BOOTSTREAM_SIZE) /
311                                 nand_writesize;
312
313         fcb->firmware1_starting_sector =        fw1_start_page;
314         fcb->firmware2_starting_sector =        fw2_start_page;
315         fcb->sectors_in_firmware1 =             bootstream_size_pages;
316         fcb->sectors_in_firmware2 =             bootstream_size_pages;
317
318         fcb->dbbt_search_area_start_address =   STRIDE_PAGES * STRIDE_COUNT;
319
320         return fcb;
321
322 err:
323         free(fcb);
324         return NULL;
325 }
326
327 static struct mx28_nand_dbbt *mx28_nand_get_dbbt(void)
328 {
329         struct mx28_nand_dbbt *dbbt;
330
331         dbbt = malloc(nand_writesize);
332         if (!dbbt) {
333                 printf("MX28 NAND: Unable to allocate DBBT\n");
334                 return NULL;
335         }
336
337         memset(dbbt, 0, nand_writesize);
338
339         dbbt->fingerprint       = 0x54424244;
340         dbbt->version           = 0x1;
341
342         return dbbt;
343 }
344
345 static inline uint8_t mx28_nand_parity_13_8(const uint8_t b)
346 {
347         uint32_t parity = 0, tmp;
348
349         tmp = ((b >> 6) ^ (b >> 5) ^ (b >> 3) ^ (b >> 2)) & 1;
350         parity |= tmp << 0;
351
352         tmp = ((b >> 7) ^ (b >> 5) ^ (b >> 4) ^ (b >> 2) ^ (b >> 1)) & 1;
353         parity |= tmp << 1;
354
355         tmp = ((b >> 7) ^ (b >> 6) ^ (b >> 5) ^ (b >> 1) ^ (b >> 0)) & 1;
356         parity |= tmp << 2;
357
358         tmp = ((b >> 7) ^ (b >> 4) ^ (b >> 3) ^ (b >> 0)) & 1;
359         parity |= tmp << 3;
360
361         tmp = ((b >> 6) ^ (b >> 4) ^ (b >> 3) ^
362                 (b >> 2) ^ (b >> 1) ^ (b >> 0)) & 1;
363         parity |= tmp << 4;
364
365         return parity;
366 }
367
368 static uint8_t *mx28_nand_fcb_block(struct mx28_nand_fcb *fcb)
369 {
370         uint8_t *block;
371         uint8_t *ecc;
372         int i;
373
374         block = malloc(nand_writesize + nand_oobsize);
375         if (!block) {
376                 printf("MX28 NAND: Unable to allocate FCB block\n");
377                 return NULL;
378         }
379
380         memset(block, 0, nand_writesize + nand_oobsize);
381
382         /* Update the FCB checksum */
383         fcb->checksum = mx28_nand_block_csum(((uint8_t *)fcb) + 4, 508);
384
385         /* Figure 12-11. in iMX28RM, rev. 1, says FCB is at offset 12 */
386         memcpy(block + 12, fcb, sizeof(struct mx28_nand_fcb));
387
388         /* ECC is at offset 12 + 512 */
389         ecc = block + 12 + 512;
390
391         /* Compute the ECC parity */
392         for (i = 0; i < sizeof(struct mx28_nand_fcb); i++)
393                 ecc[i] = mx28_nand_parity_13_8(block[i + 12]);
394
395         return block;
396 }
397
398 static int mx28_nand_write_fcb(struct mx28_nand_fcb *fcb, uint8_t *buf)
399 {
400         uint32_t offset;
401         uint8_t *fcbblock;
402         int ret = 0;
403         int i;
404
405         fcbblock = mx28_nand_fcb_block(fcb);
406         if (!fcbblock)
407                 return -1;
408
409         for (i = 0; i < STRIDE_PAGES * STRIDE_COUNT; i += STRIDE_PAGES) {
410                 offset = i * nand_writesize;
411                 memcpy(buf + offset, fcbblock, nand_writesize + nand_oobsize);
412                 /* Mark the NAND page is OK. */
413                 buf[offset + nand_writesize] = 0xff;
414         }
415
416         free(fcbblock);
417         return ret;
418 }
419
420 static int mx28_nand_write_dbbt(struct mx28_nand_dbbt *dbbt, uint8_t *buf)
421 {
422         uint32_t offset;
423         int i = STRIDE_PAGES * STRIDE_COUNT;
424
425         for (; i < 2 * STRIDE_PAGES * STRIDE_COUNT; i += STRIDE_PAGES) {
426                 offset = i * nand_writesize;
427                 memcpy(buf + offset, dbbt, sizeof(struct mx28_nand_dbbt));
428         }
429
430         return 0;
431 }
432
433 static int mx28_nand_write_firmware(struct mx28_nand_fcb *fcb, int infd,
434                                     uint8_t *buf)
435 {
436         int ret;
437         off_t size;
438         uint32_t offset1, offset2;
439
440         size = lseek(infd, 0, SEEK_END);
441         lseek(infd, 0, SEEK_SET);
442
443         offset1 = fcb->firmware1_starting_sector * nand_writesize;
444         offset2 = fcb->firmware2_starting_sector * nand_writesize;
445
446         ret = read(infd, buf + offset1, size);
447         if (ret != size)
448                 return -1;
449
450         memcpy(buf + offset2, buf + offset1, size);
451
452         return 0;
453 }
454
455 static void usage(void)
456 {
457         printf(
458                 "Usage: mxsboot [ops] <type> <infile> <outfile>\n"
459                 "Augment BootStream file with a proper header for i.MX28 boot\n"
460                 "\n"
461                 "  <type>       type of image:\n"
462                 "                 \"nand\" for NAND image\n"
463                 "                 \"sd\" for SD image\n"
464                 "  <infile>     input file, the u-boot.sb bootstream\n"
465                 "  <outfile>    output file, the bootable image\n"
466                 "\n");
467         printf(
468                 "For NAND boot, these options are accepted:\n"
469                 "  -w <size>    NAND page size\n"
470                 "  -o <size>    NAND OOB size\n"
471                 "  -e <size>    NAND erase size\n"
472                 "\n"
473                 "For SD boot, these options are accepted:\n"
474                 "  -p <sector>  Sector where the SGTL partition starts\n"
475         );
476 }
477
478 static int mx28_create_nand_image(int infd, int outfd)
479 {
480         struct mx28_nand_fcb *fcb;
481         struct mx28_nand_dbbt *dbbt;
482         int ret = -1;
483         uint8_t *buf;
484         int size;
485         ssize_t wr_size;
486
487         size = nand_writesize * 512 + 2 * MAX_BOOTSTREAM_SIZE;
488
489         buf = malloc(size);
490         if (!buf) {
491                 printf("Can not allocate output buffer of %d bytes\n", size);
492                 goto err0;
493         }
494
495         memset(buf, 0, size);
496
497         fcb = mx28_nand_get_fcb(MAX_BOOTSTREAM_SIZE);
498         if (!fcb) {
499                 printf("Unable to compile FCB\n");
500                 goto err1;
501         }
502
503         dbbt = mx28_nand_get_dbbt();
504         if (!dbbt) {
505                 printf("Unable to compile DBBT\n");
506                 goto err2;
507         }
508
509         ret = mx28_nand_write_fcb(fcb, buf);
510         if (ret) {
511                 printf("Unable to write FCB to buffer\n");
512                 goto err3;
513         }
514
515         ret = mx28_nand_write_dbbt(dbbt, buf);
516         if (ret) {
517                 printf("Unable to write DBBT to buffer\n");
518                 goto err3;
519         }
520
521         ret = mx28_nand_write_firmware(fcb, infd, buf);
522         if (ret) {
523                 printf("Unable to write firmware to buffer\n");
524                 goto err3;
525         }
526
527         wr_size = write(outfd, buf, size);
528         if (wr_size != size) {
529                 ret = -1;
530                 goto err3;
531         }
532
533         ret = 0;
534
535 err3:
536         free(dbbt);
537 err2:
538         free(fcb);
539 err1:
540         free(buf);
541 err0:
542         return ret;
543 }
544
545 static int mx28_create_sd_image(int infd, int outfd)
546 {
547         int ret = -1;
548         uint32_t *buf;
549         int size;
550         off_t fsize;
551         ssize_t wr_size;
552         struct mx28_sd_config_block *cb;
553
554         fsize = lseek(infd, 0, SEEK_END);
555         lseek(infd, 0, SEEK_SET);
556         size = fsize + 4 * 512;
557
558         buf = malloc(size);
559         if (!buf) {
560                 printf("Can not allocate output buffer of %d bytes\n", size);
561                 goto err0;
562         }
563
564         ret = read(infd, (uint8_t *)buf + 4 * 512, fsize);
565         if (ret != fsize) {
566                 ret = -1;
567                 goto err1;
568         }
569
570         cb = (struct mx28_sd_config_block *)buf;
571
572         cb->signature = 0x00112233;
573         cb->primary_boot_tag = 0x1;
574         cb->secondary_boot_tag = 0x1;
575         cb->num_copies = 1;
576         cb->drv_info[0].chip_num = 0x0;
577         cb->drv_info[0].drive_type = 0x0;
578         cb->drv_info[0].tag = 0x1;
579         cb->drv_info[0].first_sector_number = sd_sector + 4;
580         cb->drv_info[0].sector_count = (size - 4) / 512;
581
582         wr_size = write(outfd, buf, size);
583         if (wr_size != size) {
584                 ret = -1;
585                 goto err1;
586         }
587
588         ret = 0;
589
590 err1:
591         free(buf);
592 err0:
593         return ret;
594 }
595
596 static int parse_ops(int argc, char **argv)
597 {
598         int i;
599         int tmp;
600         char *end;
601         enum param {
602                 PARAM_WRITE,
603                 PARAM_OOB,
604                 PARAM_ERASE,
605                 PARAM_PART,
606                 PARAM_SD,
607                 PARAM_NAND
608         };
609         int type;
610
611         if (argc < 4)
612                 return -1;
613
614         for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
615                 if (!strncmp(argv[i], "-w", 2))
616                         type = PARAM_WRITE;
617                 else if (!strncmp(argv[i], "-o", 2))
618                         type = PARAM_OOB;
619                 else if (!strncmp(argv[i], "-e", 2))
620                         type = PARAM_ERASE;
621                 else if (!strncmp(argv[i], "-p", 2))
622                         type = PARAM_PART;
623                 else    /* SD/MMC */
624                         break;
625
626                 tmp = strtol(argv[++i], &end, 10);
627                 if (tmp % 2)
628                         return -1;
629                 if (tmp <= 0)
630                         return -1;
631
632                 if (type == PARAM_WRITE)
633                         nand_writesize = tmp;
634                 if (type == PARAM_OOB)
635                         nand_oobsize = tmp;
636                 if (type == PARAM_ERASE)
637                         nand_erasesize = tmp;
638                 if (type == PARAM_PART)
639                         sd_sector = tmp;
640         }
641
642         if (strcmp(argv[i], "sd") && strcmp(argv[i], "nand"))
643                 return -1;
644
645         if (i + 3 != argc)
646                 return -1;
647
648         return i;
649 }
650
651 int main(int argc, char **argv)
652 {
653         int infd, outfd;
654         int ret = 0;
655         int offset;
656
657         offset = parse_ops(argc, argv);
658         if (offset < 0) {
659                 usage();
660                 ret = 1;
661                 goto err1;
662         }
663
664         infd = open(argv[offset + 1], O_RDONLY);
665         if (infd < 0) {
666                 printf("Input BootStream file can not be opened\n");
667                 ret = 2;
668                 goto err1;
669         }
670
671         outfd = open(argv[offset + 2], O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_WRONLY,
672                                         S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR);
673         if (outfd < 0) {
674                 printf("Output file can not be created\n");
675                 ret = 3;
676                 goto err2;
677         }
678
679         if (!strcmp(argv[offset], "sd"))
680                 ret = mx28_create_sd_image(infd, outfd);
681         else if (!strcmp(argv[offset], "nand"))
682                 ret = mx28_create_nand_image(infd, outfd);
683
684         close(outfd);
685 err2:
686         close(infd);
687 err1:
688         return ret;
689 }